Cat skin problems are the most frequent reason for vet visits. They can also be difficult for felines and humans alike. Skin irritations, rashes, infections, and cat skin issues can be unpleasant and interfere with daily activities like catnaps and playtime.
Fortunately, your veterinarian can help you determine the root of the problem and then work with you to create the most appropriate treatment or management for your pet. Here are some essential points to consider if you think your cat might have a skin issue.
CAUSES OF CAT SKIN PROBLEMS
There are a variety of possible reasons for cat skin problems. Many of them share similar symptoms. Therefore, even though the appearance and location of a skin lesion could indicate the cause, more testing is typically required for an exact diagnosis.
With that in mind, here are some of the most frequent causes of cat skin problems:
- Allergies or allergic Dermatitis (skin itching or an infection brought on from allergies). Most commonly, this includes environmental/seasonal allergies, also known as atopy. Contact allergies or food allergies (from dishes made of plastic, or laundry detergent scents, for instance) may also be present; however, they are not as expected. Pet owners may notice other symptoms based on what the cat is allergic to, such as respiratory problems or vomiting.
- Fleas and other skin parasites, such as ticks, mites, or lice. The bites of fleas can trigger allergy dermatitis, an allergic reaction to bites of fleas that can cause extreme itchiness and lead to skin irritations. Since cats are incredibly groomers, they can remove evidence of fleas, even before you detect them. Therefore, the fleas (or any other parasites) might remain even if you don’t see they’re on the cat.
- Ear issues such as ear mites or yeast or bacterial infections. The ear’s outer part extends from the skin, which could be affected by parasites, allergies, and cat skin problems.
- Ringworm is an infection caused by fungal on the skin, which causes areas of loss in fur or dry lesions. Ringworm can be highly infectious between cats. Dogs and humans at home could contract it too.
- Feline acne is an ailment that results in pustules, blackheads (pimples), and hair loss on the chin.
- Overgrooming where a feline grooms itself so often that they leave hairless patches and even lesions on the skin. This could be caused by stress or boredom, or a medical condition that can cause discomfort. For example, cats suffering from arthritis might be obsessed with grooming painful areas. A cat suffering from an infection of the urinary tract could overgroom their stomach. Kitties who overgroom may also experience an increase of hairballs.
- Being overweight or otherwise incapable of grooming themselves.
- Abscesses are swelling areas (accumulations of pus and fluids beneath the skin) that usually occur following another cat’s bite and the subsequent infection. The swelling can appear taut or soft, and the pus could drain once the abscess bursts. Kitties with abscess-related issues may develop an illness or fever.
- Masses of skin. The growths of the skin are less frequent in cats than dogs. Therefore all growths must be examined by a veterinarian. Most are not harmful. However, cancers could develop, and early diagnosis is recommended.
- Sunburn. Cats with white fur who spend their time in the outdoors are particularly susceptible to sunburn. The ear tips, as well as other areas with thin fur, are frequent areas. This can lead to irritation, scabs and could eventually cause skin cancer.
- Eosinophilic granuloma complex. It is a condition that causes some immune cells (eosinophils) to release inflammation-causing substances in response to something (flea and insect bites and allergens in the environment and food, etc.). The condition can manifest as raised bumps or ulcerated skin, most commonly on the hindlimbs, stomach, or face. It can also appear as an “indolent ulcer” or sores that appear on the cat’s upper lip.
- Bacterial or yeast infections. These opportunistic infections usually occur in conjunction with the original problem, when the barrier that protects the skin is damaged.
- Underlying medical conditions like hormone imbalances, autoimmune diseases, or other health conditions.
SYMPTOMS OF A CAT SKIN PROBLEMS
Rashes, as well as other cat skin problems, can be manifested in various ways. Your cat may not exhibit all of these signs simultaneously, but you could be able to notice some or all of these:
- Red skin.
- Bald patches or hair loss.
- Skin bumps, crusts, scabs, or wounds.
- Head shaking (for ear infections).
DIAGNOSING CAT SKIN CONDITIONS
To ensure the most effective treatment, it’s essential to understand the reason for the problem in the first place.
Apart from performing an entire physical examination and discussing potential allergens or exposures, the vet may suggest tests for diagnosis. Examples include scrapes or swabs of the area affected or a food sample to test for food-related allergies as well as tests for allergy (blood or skin tests) for environmental allergies, or other diagnostic tests (bloodwork or x-rays.) if an underlying health issue is suspected. A skin biopsy might be required to identify specific conditions. However, this is typically not the first step unless there is a mass that needs to be removed.
Usually, diagnostic tests are performed sequentially. However, advanced or more invasive tests are suggested when a cat does not improve after conventional treatment or if the initial test doesn’t answer the cause of these cat skin problems.
TREATMENT FOR CAT SKIN CONDITIONS
A thorough diagnosis is crucial in planning treatment. If symptoms are treated independently without taking care of the root reason, the issue could return.
Treatment for the root reason could include parasite control such as antifungal shampoo or medicines for ringworm, antibiotics, surgical lancing, cleaning an abscess, or a specific diet for food allergies, or any other treatment that is recommended.
In the case of contagious conditions (such as the ringworm fungal infection or specific parasites), The vet team can advise how to prevent spreading the disease to humans and other pets.
Regardless of the root causes, the treatments listed below relieve pain and let the skin heal.
- Treatment for bacterial or yeast infections. While these types of infections could result from the initial skin condition, their presence could cause discomfort and slow healing, which is why it’s crucial to take care of them.
- Medications to relieve itch and inflammation. Most commonly, this is the use of steroidal medicines (such as prednisolone) that are administered as an injection or pill and a topical cream or Ointment. In addition, modern treatments for skin itching are accessible at many veterinarians offices or through a prescription from a veterinarian.
- Antihistamines like Benadryl and Zyrtec. Antihistamines are the most effective in blocking allergic reactions rather than treating symptoms, but they could still be helpful in the treatment process and avoid flare-ups in the future.
- Ear cleansing and ear medication to treat ear infections or mites.
- An Elizabethan collar to stop cats from reaching the area when they’re constantly scratching or licking. This gives the skin a chance to heal.
- Creams, medicated shampoos, sprays, or ointments.
- Health supplements for the skin can include omega fatty acids and other formulations.
- A visit to a vet dermatologist may be suggested for cats who have severe skin issues or skin problems that aren’t responding well to the standard treatments.
Ensure to consult your veterinarian before prescribing any medication for your cat, as most common home remedies are harmful to kittens.
It’s equally important to know the nature of your cat’s illness and set realistic goals. For instance, allergies can’t be cured, which is why they generally don’t disappear completely. However, they can be managed to reduce the symptoms, and your cat enjoys an excellent quality of life.
WHAT’S THE BEST DIET FOR A CAT WITH SKIN PROBLEMS?
It’s dependent on the cause of your pet’s symptoms. Although food allergies can occur, they’re not as widespread as pet owners believe them to be. Without a clear diagnosis, it’s difficult to determine if a cat’s symptoms are caused by food allergies or numerous other possible reasons.
A food trial is the best way to diagnose food allergies. Unfortunately, blood and skin-based allergy testing are not as accurate for how the body responds to food allergens in real life.
Cats can be allergic to almost any ingredient in their food. This could include healthy proteins like fish or chicken. This means that, even while there is a possibility of allergies to grains and are a possibility, grain-free diets or similar formulas aren’t an all-inclusive solution. They may not work for all cats, depending on the specific ingredients they are sensitive to.
A good food trial could last for a couple of months and must be followed strictly (no food treats that are not approved or offering food during the trial). Your veterinarian can assist you in deciding which foods to experiment with depending on your cat’s food intake history. Prescription diets are a good starting point, as the production process is monitored to prevent accidental exposure to other ingredients in the process of production.
Because every cat is different and unique, multiple tests must be conducted before the most suitable food for a particular cat is found. This may be a little frustrating, but it’s worthwhile when you find the ideal diet for your cat, as their ailments will be less severe over time.
Non-allergic cat skin problems might benefit from a non-prescription but high-quality cat food specifically designed to promote healthy skin. These food items could include skin health supplements like omega fatty acids in the appropriate dosages for cats.
It’s crucial to know that homemade meals are typically not the best option. If a pet’s owner wants to provide an at-home recipe, it must get the approval of a vet nutritionist. Otherwise, serious health issues can result from excessive intake of nutrients or deficiency.
PREVENTING SKIN DISEASES IN CATS
Although not every skin condition can be avoided, however, many can be. The following tips can aid pet owners in avoiding many typical cat skin problems.
- Keep your cat inside to lower the chance of being exposed to fleas and other parasites and bites such as mosquitoes, cat fights and allergens like pollen.
- Use a parasite-control product that is recommended by your veterinarian based on the risks in your location.
- Maintain your cat at an ideal weight to allow them to groom their whole body with ease effectively.
- If your cat’s fur is long, groom or brush them to avoid mats and tangles. The majority of short-haired cats do not require regular bathing shampoo. It could irritate their skin.
- Think about the use of a humidifier if you reside in a dry climate.
- Avoid stressful situations whenever possible (a change in your home or routine), or speak to your vet regarding how to ensure your cat is calm in a stressful event.
- Choose a ceramic or stainless steel (instead of plastic) food bowl and water bowl. This can help stop chin irritation or acne in sensitive cats.
Also, get veterinary care whenever you can to address any skin concerns. While they’re rarely an emergency, prompt treatment is recommended.
By monitoring your cat and following the correct treatments and preventative plans developed with the assistance of your vet even cats more prone to issues with their skin can be cured to the greatest extent possible and live a full, happy life.